Metadata Harvesting From Delimited-Path Key-Value Systems

In the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH), a repository is a means of exposing metadata to harvesters. The OAI-PMH spec goes into great detail about how a data provider should implement a repository so that a harvester can simply be a client application that issues one of six possible HTTP requests. However, we often want to harvest metadata from repositories that…well…they’re not OAI-PMH repositories.

Many potential sources of scientific metadata are delimited-path key-value systems such as object storage, e.g. AWS S3, and file systems, e.g. SCP-accessible UNIX directories. How might such “repositories” be mapped to an OAI-PMH interface for harvesting?

In OAI-PMH, an item is a unique key within a repository that can yield a metadata record about a resource. In AWS S3, a bucket is a repository, a key in that bucket is an item, and the object the key points to is the resource. Using the S3 API, you can get a metadata record for a key, and the format of that record is customizable – e.g. you can ask for different kinds of metadata.

For a shared filesystem directory, the directory is the repository, a file path relative to the root directory is an item, the bytes of a file are a resource, and you can get different metadata records about a file, e.g. different aggregations of file attributes (last-modified, size, ownership, etc.).

Importantly, an item in OAI-PMH “is conceptually a container that stores or dynamically generates metadata about a single resource.” Using that idea, one could define statecharts in the form of so-called “path machines” that traverse the components of a delimited path (e.g. a synthetic “event” sequence of bucket->my->meaningful->path->to->something.json for the S3 key s3://bucket/my/meaningful/path/to/something.json) and maintain extended state to build up a metadata record that is the machine’s output.

In OAI-PMH, a metadata record is identified unambiguously by the combination of three things: the item identifier, the timestamp of the record, and an identifier for the format of the record. Analogously, a record harvested by a path machine would be identified by the (fully-qualified) path, the timestamp to associate with the record (e.g. the last-modified stamp for a S3 key), and the id of the path machine used to generate the record.

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